Biosensors are analytical devices that combine sensitive biological elements with physicochemical detectors to enable straightforward analyte detection in an easy and user-friendly fashion.
Biosensors offer many opportunities. Their applications can be divided into two main strategies:
Sensors for Emotions
Emotion recognition requires measuring physical parameters within the body or electric impulses from nervous system that correspond to levels of arousal. Electroencephalography (EEG), skin resistance measurements (GSR), and monitoring blood pressure and heart rate are among the most frequently used techniques.
EEG measurements require participants to wear a special headset equipped with electrodes on the head. An EEG signal consists of voltage fluctuation between pairs of electrodes; its amplitude increases with levels of arousal.
GSR measures changes in human conductance to detect emotions by means of machine learning, with accuracy levels depending on data type, signal processing techniques and sensors used. Three commonly-used algorithms for emotion recognition include KNN, DFA and Marquardt backpropagation algorithm – LDA could detect boredom with an accuracy rating of 78% while CART and SOMs classified it with 93%-94% accuracy, respectively.
Sensors for Environment
Biosensors are electrochemical devices containing elements or materials capable of detecting biological structures. They often include associated electronics or signal processors to generate user-friendly display of results, as well as user interface components responsible for user interface display of results. Biosensors may consist of enzymes, antibodies, DNA sequences, aptamers or whole cells as their base materials.
Lab-on-chip biodetection technologies are widely utilized for diagnostics, point-of-care monitoring and treatment, toxic detection, forensics investigation, research studies, as well as environmental quality control. Lab-on-chip technology offers portable real-time analysis of infectious diseases and health conditions.
Philips’ e-Estesia breath monitoring device helps people assess their stress levels through an easy visual system featuring animated weather (clear skies versus rainy clouds). When users are breathing normally, clear skies appear. When abnormal breathing occurs, dark stormy skies appear instead and advise the individual in plain language that it’s time to calm down – HRV biofeedback technology.
Sensors for Safety
Biosensors are scientific devices which convert natural reactions into electrical signals for use in monitoring infectious diseases or detecting tremors, among many other applications. Their principles range from redox reactions and electrochemistry, through electrooptic techniques or even optical methods.
Biosensors can take many forms; one common type is using biological components, like proteins or antibodies, to detect chemicals. Other biosensors use transducers that convert biological responses into electrical signals for detection purposes.
Biosensors include rPPG sensors, which measure heart rate; facial recognition and movement analysis to track emotional changes in an individual; lab-on-chip biosensors which use microfabricated materials to detect chemicals; remote sensing is also possible and provides information about an individual’s mental state without needing physical sensors installed in their environment – for instance games designed to detect boredom or stress automatically adjust gameplay, sound and music to match player emotional states.
Sensors for Entertainment
Sensors can be used to track players’ emotions and other physical responses during gameplay, helping developers create more engaging gaming experiences for players. Sensors are also increasingly being implemented into virtual reality gaming to allow gamers to control the experience based on their emotions and body movements.
Sensors can not only monitor the safety of casino guests, but they can also create a unique and immersive casino experience. One sensor could track a player’s heart rate and skin temperature to customize visuals according to player responses.
Other sensors can track people’s movement and trigger certain effects based on their behavior, for instance turning off lights and music when players are fatigued or stressed, activating defibrillators if an employee suspects a heart attack is happening, or sending a message reminding the player to take a break and relax.